Sunday, December 13, 2009

The nature relationship of the Business plan and the IS plan...

Before anything else i would the discuss first the definition of business plan and IS plan according to the source that i've gather

Business Plan

A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals.

The business goals may be defined for for-profit or for non-profit organizations. business plans typically focus on financial goals, such as profit or creation of wealth. Non-profit and government agency business plans tend to focus on organizational mission which is the basis for their governmental status or their non-profit, tax-exempt status, respectively—although non-profits may also focus on optimizing revenue. In non-profit organizations, creative tensions may develop in the effort to balance mission with "margin" (or revenue). Business plans may also target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, tax-payer, or larger community. A business plan having changes in perception and branding as its primary goals is called a marketing plan.

Business Systems Planning (BSP):

This methodology, developed by IBM, combines top down
planning with bottom up implementation. The methodology focuses on business processes which in
turn are derived from an organization’s business mission, objectives and goals. Business processes
are analyzed to determine data needs and, then, data classes. Similar data classes are combined to
develop databases. The final BSP plan describes an overall information systems architecture as well
as installation schedule of individual systems

(c) there is a problem of bridging the gap between top down planning and bottom up
(d) it does not incorporate a software design methodology.
(e) major weakness of BSP is the considerable time and effort required for its successful

IS Planning

Planning for information systems, as for any other system, begins with the identification of
needs. In order to be effective, development of any type of computer-based system should be a
response to need--whether at the transaction processing level or at the more complex information and
support systems levels. Such planning for information systems is much like strategic planning in
management. Objectives, priorities, and authorization for information systems projects need to be
formalized. The systems development plan should identify specific projects slated for the future,
priorities for each project and for resources, general procedures, and constraints for each application
area. The plan must be specific enough to enable understanding of each application and to know
where it stands in the order of development. Also the plan should be flexible so that priorities can be
adjusted if necessary.

Strategic Systems Planning (SSP):

Also known as PROplanner and developed by Robert
Holland, this methodology is similar to BSP. A business functional model is defined by analyzing
major functional areas of a business. A data architecture is derived from the business function
model by combining information requirements into generic data entities and subject databases. New
systems and their implementation schedules are derived from this architecture. This architecture is
then used to identify new systems and their implementation schedule. Although steps in the SSP
procedure are similar to those in the BSP, a major difference between SSP and BSP is SSP’s
automated handling of the data collected during the SISP process. Software produces reports in a
wide range of formats and with various levels of detail. Affinity reports show the frequencies of
accesses to data and clustering reports give guidance for database design. Users are guided through
menus for on-line data collection and maintenance. The software also provides a data dictionary
interface for sharing SSP data with an existing data dictionary or other automated design tools.
Steps in the SSP procedure are shown in figure 5. In addition to SSP, Holland System’s
Corporation also offers two other methodologies - one for guiding the information system
architecture and another for developing data structures for modules from the SISP study. The
strengths and weaknesses of BSP apply to SSP as well.


Both Business and IS planning are aiming for a good and effective output both of them are usually used in the business. Business planning is dealing with the goal of the company which is to earn more profit while the IS planning are the one who help the business plan to be more competitive in the sense of making the system to be automated so that business process will be more faster than ordinary transaction or manual transaction.

Issue for the business and IS planning:

One of the key elements of strategic planning for information systems (IS) is the integration of information systems planning (ISP) with business planning (BP). This integration enables IS to support business strategies more effectively. Although this issue has received significant attention in recent years, empirical research focusing specifically on BP-ISP integration is still relatively sparse. This research extends existing results by examining the evolution of BP-ISP integration and the contingency variables that may influence BP-ISP integration.The results confirmed the existence of an evolutionary pattern that can be defined in terms of movement through four types of BP-ISP integration: administrative integration to sequential integration to reciprocal integration to full integration. Only a few firms indicated that they had reached full integration. Bypassed phases and reverse evolution, though observed, were uncommon. Among the contingency variables, the business competence of the IS executive appeared to be a key factor in influencing the extent of integration.

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Assignment #1 MIS2

Think about yourself worthy to be called as IT professional, how do you see yourself 10 years from now, what are your strategies to get there?

Worthy IT Professional? Am I belong to this group? how can i become an worthy IT professional? can i be a worthy IT professional? this are the question coming from my mind when i heard a word worthy IT professional. this question challenge me to face the consequences and trials coming to my life as an IT student because i want to become an worthy IT professional.In this world there is a lot of an IT professional claiming themselves as an worthy IT professional.. I don't know what kind of skills or characteristics does the worthy IT professional have. As an IT student I'm looking forward that may be in the future i will become a worthy IT professional if i will graduate in my course BSIT with the proper discipline and attitude.Sooner if i'm already working in a big company i can properly manage myself and my carrier as an worthy IT professional. I Think you will be called as an worthy IT Professional if you have a good manner, discipline and responsible to every job that you have. Honesty i think, is also one of the reason on how to become an worthy IT professional. I know that i will become a worthy IT professional if i will strive hard to reached this.

I see my self 10 years from now as a developer of the integrated system of all automated and manual system that the Philippine government offer. Just one website and you can access everything that you want to surf regarding the national and local government services. So that our country will be known as one of the country who implemented this kind of integrated system. the question is how can i do this? it is possible for to achieve my dream? do i have a capacity to handle this kind of project?

My strategic plan to achieve this dream is to finish my study, proper training and discipline to my self, to become an a system analyst, a good programmer, and a lot of experienced.:

how to finish my study?

Of course I must be responsible for the every task, to do this perseverance is the characteristics that i need.

proper training and discipline

Some guidelines to consider are:

* Thoroughly investigate the situation which includes obtaining the employee's explanation or response prior to administering discipline.
* Document the process and results of your investigation.
* It is acceptable to repeat a step if you feel that it will correct the problem. This may be the case if some time has passed since it was last necessary to address the issue and the situation has only recently reappeared. Or perhaps, the employee misunderstood or you feel there is value in doing it again in a clearer fashion. If repeating the step works, the situation has been resolved without escalating it unnecessarily. However, be aware that an employee may be led to believe that nothing worse will happen if you continually repeat a step. If repeating a step does not resolve the problem, you can then move on to a higher step.
* The goal is to modify the unacceptable behavior or improve the performance. The goal is not to punish the employee but to more strongly alert the employee of the need to correct the problem.
* There is no rigid set of steps nor is there an inflexible rule that all steps must be followed before terminating an employee. The circumstances of each case and your judgment as to the least severe action that is necessary to correct the situation will help determine which step to use.
* Early, less stringent, measures are skipped for serious offenses such as theft, fighting, drug or alcohol use or sale. All steps are typically used for attendance or general work performance problems.
* While usually unnecessary, it is acceptable to have a witness or note taker present when meeting with the employee during the progressive discipline process. Your witness/note taker should never be a peer of the employee. university policy permits the employee to have a witness if he or she wishes.
* Human Resources is available for consultation at any step of the process, but it is especially important at the steps of suspension and termination.

To Become an a System Analyst

The development of a computer-based information system often comprises the use of a systems analyst. When a computer-based information system is developed, systems analysis (according to the Waterfall model) would constitute the following steps:

* The development of a feasibility study, involving determining whether a project is economically, socially, technologically and organisationally feasible.
* Conducting fact-finding measures, designed to ascertain the requirements of the system's end-users. These typically span interviews, questionnaires, or visual observations of work on the existing system.
* Gauging how the end-users would operate the system (in terms of general experience in using computer hardware/software), what the system would be used for etc.

A Good Programmer

Here are the following steps to improve my skills in programming:

1. Gather complete requirements.
Take the time to write down what the end product needs to achieve. Clarity of thought at this stage will save a lot of time down the line.
2. Write an implementation plan (or model).

* For something small and self-contained, this might just be a basic flowchart or an equation.
* For larger projects, it helps to break it into modules and consider what job each module must do, how data gets passed between modules, and within each module how it will function.
* Although it is fun to dive straight into code, it is equally tedious to spend hours debugging. By taking the time to design the structure on paper, you will drastically reduce your debugging time (and you may also spot more efficient ways of doing things even before you write the first line of code).

3. Add Comments to your code.
Whenever you feel your code needs some explanation, drop some comments in. Each function should be preceded by 1-2 lines describing the arguments and what it returns. (Comments should tell you why more often than what. Remember to update the comments when you update your code!)
4. Use naming conventions for variables.
It will help you keep track of what type the variable is and also what it's purpose is. Although this means more typing than x = a + b * c, it will make your code easier to debug and maintain. One popular convention is Hungarian notation where the variable name is prefixed with its type. e.g. for integer variables, intRowCounter; strings: strUserName. It doesn't matter what your naming convention is, but be sure that it is consistent and that your variable names are descriptive. (See Warnings below)
5. Organize your code.
Use visual structure to indicate code struture. i.e. indent a code block that sits within a conditional (if,else,...) or a loop (for,while,...) Also try putting spaces between a variable name and an operator such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and even the equal sign (myVariable = 2 + 2). As well as making the code more visually elegant, it makes it much easier to see the program flow at a glance. (See tips on indentation below)
6. Test.
Start by testing it with inputs that you would typically expect. Then try inputs that are possible but less common. This will flush out any hidden bugs. There is an art to testing and you will gradually build up your skills with practice.
Write your tests to always include the following:

* Extremes: zero and max for positive values, empty string, null for every parameter.
* Meaningless values, Jibberish. Even if you don't think someone with half a brain might input that, test your software against it.
* Wrong values. Zero in a parameter that will be used in a division, negative when positive is expected or a square root will be calculated. Something that is not a number when the input type is a string, and it will be parsed for numeric value.

7. Practice. Practice. Practice.
8. Be prepared for change.
In a realistic working environment, requirements change. However, the clearer you are at the start about the requirements and the clearer your implementation plan, the less likely those changes will be down to misunderstanding or "Ah, I hadn't thought of that" scenarios.

* You can take an active role in improving clarity of thinking by presenting your requirements document or your implementation plans before coding to ensure that what you are planning to create is actually what's been asked for.
* Structure the project as a series of milestones with a demo for each block. Approach the programming one milestone at a time - the less you need to think about at any moment, the more likely you will think clearly.

9. Start simple and work towards complexity.
When programming something complex, it helps to get the simpler building blocks in place and working properly first.
For example, let's say you want to create an evolving shape on screen that follows the mouse and where the degree of shape change depends on mouse speed.

* Start by displaying a square and get it to follow the mouse, i.e. solve movement tracking on its own.
* Then make the size of the square relate to mouse speed, i.e. solve speed-to-evolution tracking on its own.
* Finally create the actual shapes you want to work with and put the three components together.
* This approach naturally lends itself to modular code writing, where each component is in its own self-contained block. This is very useful for code reuse (e.g. you want to just use the mouse tracking in a new project), and makes for easier debugging and maintenance.

Through all of this i can say that i can reached my ambition for the next 10 years. hoping that there's no barrier in the middle of this plan..

Saturday, November 14, 2009

Introduction in MIS2

welcome back to sir... Once again i want to introduce my self again I'm Basith J. Jumat a 3rd year BSIT Student and currently studying in University of Southeastern Philippines. I know that there is a similarity between the MIS1 but im expecting a lot of changes in terms of industry analysis. i think this subject will give me more pressure than MIS1.. I'm also hoping that this subject will enlighten my mind on what is my strategic plan for the coming year. once again welcome back sir nice to see you again..

Saturday, October 10, 2009

Assigment #8 in HRM(On the assumption that you heard/read the SONA of the President last month (July 2009), identify at least 3 areas related to Huma)

I.) Trade and Investment
In the trade and investments sector, we envisioned to raise investments
to 25-28% of GDP by 2010 from 19.5% in 2003. Financial support to
public infrastructure shall be pursued through greater private sector
participation. We shall likewise continue to aim for a minimum 10%
annual growth in the export sector, even though the Government has
met the target to increase exports for food and services in 2006.
Towards this end, we have accomplished the following:
Promoted entrepreneurship
From 2001 to April 2008, microfinance loans to the low and middle
income men and women who want to start their own businesses have
reached P102 billion or 29 times more than the P3.49 billion we started
with in 2001.

• The Government’s initiative to enhance the SME Unified Lending
Opportunities for National Growth (SULONG) more than quadrupled
the P26.76 billion released in 2003 to P130.24 billion as of April 2008.
New jobs generated therein almost tripled from 200,783 in 2003 to
590,462 as of April 2008.
• Despite the setbacks in the global economy that affected our small
exporters, the One Town, One Product (OTOP) Program performed
respectably. Beefed up by DTI’s strong marketing program, earnings
by small exporters went up by 14%, from US$92.23 million in 2006 to
US$105 million in 2007. Local economic activity likewise markedly
improved, with OTOP domestic sales surging by 53%. Investments
inflow also improved by 23% supporting 70,733 jobs.
Since its inception in late 2004, OTOP had generated a total of P5.60
billion in investments, supported 212,960 jobs, earned US$283
million in exports and P5.88 billion in domestic sales, and assisted
17,149 small and medium enterprises.
Table 5. OTOP PERFORMANCE: 2004-2007
Performance Indicators
2004 2005 2006 2007 Total
Investments (P Million)
565.04 814.09 1,891.34 2,330.53 5,601
1,431 70,439 70,357 70,733 212,960
(US$ Million)
0.17 85.19 92.23 105.40 283.0
Domestic Sales (P Million)
1,302.40 1,808.25 2,773.79 5,884.44
SMEs Assisted 4,396 5,968 6,785 17,149

II.Completed the P10.6 million La Trinidad Fruit and Vegetable
Minimal Processing and Packaging Plant on 30 December 2008,
which shall start operating in July 2008. Dole Philippines
Incorporated, the project’s operator, is in the process of recruiting
and training personnel for the plant. The project shall contribute
into increasing the shelf-life and marketability of the upland
vegetables, lessen post harvest losses, and the Government’s food
security program.

III. Completed the P96.83 million Dingalan Port Development
Project in Aplaya, Aurora on 30 January 2008, which includes
port development and construction of a passenger terminal
building. It is expected to boost productivity of the agriculture,
aquatic, and mining industries in the Dingalan area and nearby

Talking about the Trade and Investment it will gives a big impact to the human resources because it will give a lot of opportunities to the workers so that the jobs opportunities will grow.

Assignment in HRM #7("Human beings are the most important, potent and critical, resource of any organization, and yet the least understood and the wo)

Human resources is an increasingly broadening term that refers to managing "human capital," the people of an organization. The field has moved from a traditionally administrative function to a strategic one that recognizes the link between talented and engaged people and organizational success. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and System Theory. Human resources has at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production although this perspective is changing as a function of new and ongoing research into more strategic approaches at national levels.This first usage is used more in terms of 'human resources development', and can go beyond just organizations to the level of nations. The more traditional usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within a firm or agency, and to the portion of the organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues, typically referred to as 'human resources management'.

Human beings are definitely the most important resource in an organization. Above everything else humans are the most superior in an organization. We all know that humans are essential in every organization because without them organizations would definitely not work out. If the technology or the department wherein IT id present is said to be the brain of an organization, human are the heart of every organization and without them the organization could not live and stand on its own. Human beings are also, to a certain extent, selfish, both by nature and by environment. A person who is an altruist is one who has regard for; and is devoted to the interest of others than himself alone. Altruism is a desirable trait to be aspired for but is, generally, hard to find among people in its ideal form. There are some people who seem to lack even a trace of altruism in their makeup; still others believe that there is such thing as enlightened self-interest, which may be made to benefit everybody through cooperation. Thus,
self-interest and the welfare of others do not have to conflict with each other.
Both can be achieved or satisfied at the same time.

Assignment#9 in MIS

Improving Coal Efficiency and Reducing Environmental Pollution

The main objective of the TA is to assist the government in developing suitable environmentally friendly technologies for improving domestic coal utilization efficiency and reducing pollution in the building materials, metallurgy,coal, and chemical sub sectors. The TA will evaluate ways to improve energy efficiency in and reduce pollution from industrial enterprises of these four sub sectors and will recommend appropriate policy measures,institutional mechanism and financial incentives
The TA through surveys, will ascertain the major problems prevalent in each subsector, including inefficiencies resulting from the use of outdated process design and technology ,inappropriate plant size equipment, and inefficient plant operations. Based on the results of the survey, one enterprises from each subsector, representing the common problem of the subsector.
Technology plays important roles in our life. It enables us to do our activities easier. Something that might be so difficult to do in the past can be done easily with the technology innovations. No want will argue that technology also give huge impact in educational field. With technology, teaching and learning activities can be more interesting and fun. It may also help the learners to get the lesson objectives faster than the manual and conventional way.

• What should be your role within this environment?

As an IT student i have a big role within this environment because I can be a part of implementing this program through the learning that i got from the school i can expand my knowledge on how to be more efficient with this kind of program. Learning is a lifelong process that sometimes we encountered a problems that make as self pity but through this learning we can be strong enough to face consequences. working in this kind of environment I will not abuse any of its benefits. i will make use of its sites opportunities so that i can contribute a lot even though it is difficult.

And as a student I am aware that learning is a lifelong process. That is why information is abounding – never stops and never ends. As an IT student, I’ve had panoramas of several companies’ information systems. I have learned how information could be very crucial in a workplace and even at home. And I have also seen localities and circumstances where there is scarcity or outdated information. I know many of us are relying heavily on basic information exchange and getting just a bit of it at a time is not enough in this rapid competent world.

• How can the principles of information organization and representation help you in performing this role?

The TA make this program to help the government of china to reduce using of coal because it is not good of over used of it. With this goal, the organization help me on how to manage the benefits of this program and those opportunities that can give to all the people will be properly grab.

• What are the challenges facing you in performing the role? How will you address these challenges?

There are many challenges that I will be facing when I will be in an information environment. I will just state here the challenges that come to my mind right now.

Myself. If I will be working in an information environment, I must have discipline for myself. I have to be hardworking in my work, just like all my fellow workers will be doing. I mustn’t be late in work. I must follow what my boss says to me and must do it in time for the deadline, if there is. And I’ll just be absent if I really have an important excuse for it.

In an information environment, I must expect that I will be working with a team or if not, then other personnel. There are issues sometimes that fellow workers have arguments, and I must not be one of those workers. I have to a develop a camaraderie between my fellow workers so there will be no hindrance to the flow of work in our department. In short, there has to be chemistry,hehe.

Also, you have to be particular with the hardware and software that you’ll be dealing with when you work. What the company provides you; you have to make use of it. If you complain about it, then it’ll be a possible “kick out” for you. You’re just a worker following orders, and you really have a thick face (bagag nawong in bisaya) or in serious terms, boastful if you do that.

Assignment #6 in MISIf you were hired by the university president as an IT consultant, what would you suggest (technology, infrastructure, innovations

If I were hired as an IT consul;tant i would like to suggest the following for a benefits of the University..

• The Information Technology Consultant works with user groups to solve business problems with available technology including hardware,
software, databases, and peripherals. Services may include studying and analyzing systems needs; systems development; systems
process analysis, design, and re-engineering; feasibility studies; developing requests for proposals; evaluating vendor products and
making recommendations on selection. Enterprise support may require knowledge of business management, systems engineering operations research, and management engineering. Duties are performed at various levels within the defined category

• Probably focus your technical skills on predictable technologies: Microsoft server and desktop OSs, Microsoft Office software, e-mail platforms, and TCP/IP. Particularly ambitious IT consultants might add VoIP, Cisco, SonicWALL, and other network technologies to their plate, too.
But you may be missing a cash cow if you overlook Intuit products. The company recently reported a 9 percent increase in quarterly revenue vs. the third quarter 2008. With third quarter 2009 revenue of $1.4 billion, someone is buying Intuit products, and many of those people could be your clients.

• A consultant is a professional that provides expert advice in a particular domain or area of expertise such as accountancy, information technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance or more esoteric areas of knowledge, for example engineering and scientific specialties such as materials science, instrumentation, avionics, and stress analysis. See related Certified Management Consultant and MBA.
• An expert in a specialized field brought in to provide independent professional advice to an organization on some aspect of its activities. A consultant may advise on the overall management of an organization or on a specific project, such as the introduction of a new computer system. Consultants are usually retained by a client for a set period of time, during which they will investigate the matter in hand and produce a report detailing their recommendations. Consultants may be established in business independently or be employed by a large consulting firm. Specific types of consultants include management consultants and internal consultants.

I would like to suggest the following for the Infrastructure which is the computer hardware and sofware infrastructure: Computers should be running at least Pentium-2.0Ghz w/48.8K modem. Computer technician would use different "internet software" ( pick and choose what works better ). Network technician would also use different operating systems ( WinXP or WinVista or Linux ). Host computers should upgrade to faster hardware ( Pentium 4, Dual Core, Core 2 Duo, AMD Sempron, AMD Athlon ) and upgrade to faster connection ( DSL or Full T1,T2 ).

University internet server needs to have a 24 hour dedicated connection to the internet and it should be internet server == a "unix machine" + firewall + router + phone lines to ISP. Another suggestion is to switch to a "better/faster/larger" ISP ( not the slow commercial online services ).

I would suggest the innovations in cable modem/router tweaking to improve university internet connection speed. All modems make it possible for established communications channels to support a wide variety of data communication. Similar to other modems, a cable modem receives and sends data by modulating and demodulating signals. However, cable modems differ from other modems because they also function like routers. Broadband Internet data is delivered into the home or office over a coaxial cable line that also carries television signals. The information travels like a TV channel through the coaxial cable line. The cable modem separates the data from the television signals and directs the data to the PC and video to the television.

Local traffic is the biggest speed cap that plagues cable modems or a source of a slow cable internet connection. Cable modems work on a network/grid that connects to a T3 router running at 45 Megabits per second. Depending on where computers placed, they could have a busy grid, or a not-so-busy one. Then there is Internet traffic. Network administrator’s best bet if he really needs the speed is to pick a time where not as many people are on. There is a noticeable difference in traffic between 2 AM and 6 PM.

There are a number of ways to improve the performance of university cable modem/router. Unlike old fashioned dial-up modems, there isn't a whole lot he can do to increase the speed of computer cable connection. He can tweak the way the broadband Internet cable connection sends the data/packets back and forth. If he is new to this whole thing, there are a number of programs that will automatically set the best values for the connection. Some of the most popular programs are EasyMTU, I-Speed, Intelli Dial-Up, Smartalec, Smartplay.

There’s also Web browser called Voyager 5000 made by Smartalec that’s much faster than regular Internet Explorer. Updating the drivers on computer’s (Network Interface Card) can give the most noticeable speed boost above everything else. Some good places to check for drivers would be:,, and even

Improving university cable internet speeds with connection teaming is also an option. Midpoint has a feature called connection teaming. Connection teaming combines multiple connections to the Internet for increased bandwidth. Along with connection teaming, the software splits large files being downloaded into multiple smaller parts and downloads each part at the same time along each connection. Cable modem companies sometimes allow network technician to purchase additional IP address for a monthly fee. @Home does this for $5 per IP address. @Home caps the bandwidth per account, not IP address - but at the very least, it might increase the efficiency of internet connection and allow the throughput to closer reach the capped maximum speed.
On a very basic level, host computer’s performance also affects the Internet performance as well. If university computer isn't running at its best, neither will the broadband Internet connection.


VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a technology used for sending sound via network based on IP protocol, which is e.g. Internet. It allows for integration of telephony and data transmission into one net thanks to treating sound as an ordinary stream of data. This technology is more and more often perceived as an alternative to casual telephone networks due to its numerous advantages. VoIP enables making phone calls also to subscribers who do not have Internet and use traditional telephone network or a mobile.

The basic principle of the technology\'s operation is relatively simple, namely the speech signal is transferred to digital representation, it undergoes compression with a proper codec and then it is divided into packets and sent via IP protocol. Many new technologies are used here, including logical elements and special protocols. Logical elements are necessary for, among others, managing notifications and storing information on it, routing packets etc. New protocols are mainly signal protocols, which means that they are used for making connections and multimedia sessions, determining user\'s location, translation of addresses, negotiations of parameters of the notification link, disconnecting and managing notifications, billings and realizations of safety mechanisms. At present two main protocols are used for VoIP, namely H.323 and SIP.

H.323 Protocol
The first version of the protocol was adopted over 10 tears ago, namely in 1996, the second one in 1998. It belongs to the family of H.32x protocols, which describe multimedia connections inside various networks:
H.320 - narrow-band digital networks ISDN
H.321 - broad-band digital networks ISDN and ATM
H.322 - packet networks with guaranteed band
H.323 - packet networks with no guaranteed band
H.324 - analogue POTS networks

All of these protocols support various sets of audio and video codecs, depending on the band made available in the network. They can operate with transmission control (TCP) or without it (UDP), where in VoIP connections no control protocols are used due to additional delays. H.323 supervises the process of sending multimedia data in packet networks, performing this task in real time. Components of H.323 precisely define how particular components of the system, operating according to the protocol, initiate multimedia sessions and how working posts exchange compressed audio and video data between themselves. H.323 supervises processes of sending multimedia data in packet networks, performing this task in real time. Architecture of telephone IP network, base on H.323 standard, consists of four basic elements: terminals, gatekeepers, gateways and MCU (Multipoint Control Units).
Terminals are clients who have the possibility of initiation and receiving notifications. They are also used for sending and receiving two-way stream of data. A terminal can be both, software operating on a PC and a special device designed for this purpose. All terminals should make carrying out a telephone conversation possible, while data or video service is optional.
Gatekeepers manage the so-called zone, which is a collection of terminals, gateways and MCU. H.323 standard divides the net into these zones. Notifications inside a net are managed by a gatekeeper. Inter-zone notifications can engaged many gatekeepers. A gatekeeper, when present in the net, supervises the course of all telephone conversations carried out in a zone. Its basic tasks are the following: control of the available band, routing notifications, receiving, refusing notifications in a zone, translation of addresses and user authorization. Gatekeeper is also an interface to other H.323 networks. A \"gatekeeper\" is an optional element of the network but if it is present in a given subnetwork, then the terminals can use it.
A gateway is responsible for connecting the telephone IP network to other types of network. For example, a gateway can connect H.323 network with SIP, PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) or ISDN networks. The gateway must provide an interface of real time between various transmission formats and communication procedures. Moreover, it is responsible for establishing and disconnecting connections in both connected networks. The gateway must therefore have mechanisms converting various formats at its disposal and it must operate networks based on various technologies. MCU runs conferences in which at least three end points participate. An MCU unit manages conference resources, runs negotiations between end points (agreeing on, for instance, the method of encoding audio and video data) and it can steer streams of packets containing multimedia data. MCU consists of two basic elements: Multipoint Controller (MC) and optionally a few Multipoint Processors (MP). MC is responsible for exchange of information and for negotiation of communication parameters between the end points, it runs H.255.0 signaling MP is among others responsible for mixing various multimedia data, format translations and eventual redistribution of streams from users.

What is very often possible is integration of network elements in one physical device. For example, functionality of a gatekeeper can be combined with functionality of a gateway and an MCU or an MCU can be built into the terminal so as to make conference connections possible without additional devices.

Everything takes place in Linux environment (distribution practically does not matter but personally I recommend Slackware). I presume that people reading this article are equipped with basic knowledge on compilations, patching and software installation in Linux systems and that they are familiar with basic principles of working with packet filter iptables and a tool for queuing tc. The following elements influence the system so that it manages the band properly:

- linux kernel in version 2.6.15.x
- patch to linux kernel -2.6.14-imq6.diff
- patch to kernel esfq-kernel.patch
- latest iptables (1.3.5 currently)
- patch for the iptables iptables-1.3.0-imq1.diff
- ipp2p module for iptables
- packet iproute2
- patch for iproute2 esfq-iproute2.patch

I suggest installation of the software in the above-stated order. Kernel 2.6.x is much more stable than series 2.4.x. The above configuration was tested by me on a big group of routers (10 ) and it has been working perfectly well. Needles to say, in Linux, you can only limit the output movement from a given interface with tc (Traffic Control). What we need then is a virtual mediation interface (the so-called IMQ) to which the Input movement should be redirected (the so-called Input). Thanks to such an operation, the input movement could be limited as output movement from a virtual IMQ. Obviously, queuing of solutions can be done without IMQ but I do not recommend this method because it is based up feigning packets, which makes later classification and prioritization impossible. I need to say a few more words on the interfaces. No network card based on Realtek\'s chipset should be used (especially RTL 8319), as they are devices designed for working posts and they lose work stability when there are more connections, which is manifested in an increase of the \'pings\' and in many other awkward phenomena. Instead of them I recommend cards based upon Intel Pro or 3com.
Another aspect is the ESFQ mechanism (Enhanced Stochastic Fair Queuing) for the WAN router. In comparison to the traditionally used SFQ mechanism, it enables just division of links with a view to connections from the source and target address (hash src, hash dst - upload, download to WAN). Thanks to this, we are able to make WAN interfaces totally independent from LAN interfaces. Briefly speaking - no queuing is necessary for LAN, the whole movement will be justly separated between them. All of the above solutions refer obviously to HTB mechanism (Hierarchic Token Bucket).

The University must ensure that the networks are maintained by their IT personnel and or technicians and the connection is monitored from time to time.

Today's networks have a significant impact on our lives - changing the way we live, work, and play. Computer networks - and in a larger context the Internet - allow people to communicate, collaborate, and interact in ways they never did before. We use the network in a variety of ways, including web applications, IP telephony, video conferencing, interactive gaming, electronic commerce, education, and more.

What are the benefits of networking? In a network, information and resources can be shared. This brings a number of advantages: You can share expensive peripherals, such as printers. In a network, all the computers can access the same printer. You can pass data between users without using floppy disks. Transferring files over the network eliminates time wasted copying files onto a floppy disk and then onto another PC. Also, there is less restriction on the size of file that can be transferred over a network. You can centralize key computer programs, such as finance and accounting. Often users need to access the same program so they can work on it simultaneously. One example would be a ticket booking office system where it would important to prevent a ticket being sold twice. You can institute automatic file backup. A computer program can be used to back up key files automatically, saving time and ensuring that all your work is safe.

In a Wide Area Network, information and resources can be shared over a greater geographical area. This brings a number of advantages: You can send and receive e-mail from all over the world, communicating messages and announcements to many people, in many different areas, quickly and inexpensively. You can transfer files to and from colleagues in other locations, or access the company network from home. You can access the vast resources of the Internet and the World Wide Web.

Internet has great effects in every people on earth that makes the people saw the as the useful tool for basically information for news, events, browsing for people and for history and many more. Internet has changed the way we communicate with our loved ones across the country because it offers more benefit than the old communication technologies. In education Internet has become a virtual assistant for students who wants research be done easily and hassle free.